Welcome to our world
The bloodhound came to prominence when William the Conqueror brought them to England, where they were originally used as game hunting dogs. During colonization in the new world, the dogs were brought to America.Their true gift as amazing and remarkable man- trailing dogs was at last recognized. The bloodhound soon became famous as the dog with the NOSE!!
Today, the bloodhound is the only breed that has the ability to scent discriminate human scent, and only trained bloodhounds evidence can be accepted in a court of law. This skill is unmatched by any other breed of dog. Remarkably this same dog may be on a trail one day, in the show ring or obedience ring the next and lying on your couch or romping with your kids the day after that! The bloodhound is capable of being a serious working dog and the most clownish lovable pet you will ever own, if you take the time to train him properly throughout his life.
Just remember ... you are now owned by a bloodhound and their motto is "What is in it for me?"
How do I care for my puppy
If they should appear cloudy, go to your vet.
Use a good ear cleaner and please obtain recommendations from your breeder or vet.
This must be done diligently as problems can arise very quickly! We like a wipe rather than liquid poured into their ears!
Brush every week ... this eliminates dead hair.
Check the dewlap area (under the neck) for any hair loss or possible irritation.
A good habit of routine maintenance will help your dog look, feel and smell better.
Cut them every week!
Begin as soon as you get your pup and do it as part of your routine!
They do not make this an enjoyable task, but with patience, you will get it done.
Anesthesia - be careful, bloodhounds do not require the recommended dosage per pound, so please suggest to your vet to start with a lesser amount ... the use of barbiturate anesthesia is not recommended in bloodhounds!
Behavior - bloodhounds can be rather possessive, opportunistic and they don't like to share! You must run your home like the top dog! Be kind, but be the boss ... make sure you control your hound's whole life, all his belongings and especially his food! When he becomes a teenage, at about 8 to 9 months, he may try to challenge you. Never let him get the upper hand!
Socialization - socialize your pup as much as you can. They enjoy new sounds, smells and sights!
Obedience - attend basic obedience, this will be a large dog and you want him to be controllable!
Crate Training - he is a cute little pup right now and your child wants the puppy to sleep with him, in his bed, don't do it ... this little pup will grow ... buy a large crate and use it now!
Fencing - never allow your bloodhound to roam free ... his nose will take him on a scent trail and he will forget you in a heartbeat and you will have a lost, stolen or dead dog!
Special Identification - microchip your pup ... it is simple and your vet can do it for you or your breeder.
Feeding - your breeder should go over this with you ... we free feed (filling the dish in the morning and evening), but everyone has their own way. Bloodhounds drink lots of water, so make sure you have plenty of fresh water available at all times. Please feed good dog food ... if the ingredients say it has corn ... don't use it!
Good breeders spend years studying pedigrees, evaluating health and talking to other breeders all over the world in an attempt to produce quality bloodhounds. The background of a prospective breeding pair is extremely important in identifying and avoiding potential problems. Prospective breeding hounds should be tested and screened for genetic disorders. For more information on the specific recommended screenings for bloodhounds, contact the Canine Health Information Center (www.caninehealthinfo.org) and for more information about performing these tests, contact the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (ww.ofa.org). A reputable breeder will only sell pet puppies on a limited registration and with spay or neuter contracts. This assures that the dogs are not bred indiscriminately and that only the very best of each litter will be used in any future breeding program. Spayed and neutered animals are not eligible to compete in AKC Conformation shows, but may compete in AKC Obedience, Agility and Tracking events.
If for any reason you are unable to keep your pet, contact your breeder - reputable breeders will happily and eagerly take the dog back regardless of age!
If the initial price seems too good to be true ... ask yourself why and should I buy from this breeder? Please do your research, prior to buying from anyone!
by Karen Leshkivich, DVM
Bloodhounds unfortunately have an ear designed for trouble. Those wonderful long, low set ears are great at trapping debris, moisture and heat producing the optimum dark environment for bacteria and yeast to grow. If you notice a foul odor or debris in the ear canal when you lift up that soft, long ear flap or if they are shaking their head, scratching at their ears, or rubbing their head on the floor or furniture, your hound may have an ear infection (otitis).
The most common culprits of ear infections are yeast (often a very dark brown buildup in the ear canal) or bacteria such as E. Coli, Staph or Pseudomonas. There are many predisposing factors to ear problems, other than their ear conformation. Activities such as swimming, or always laying on one side to sleep can result in an ear problem. Foreign bodies (weeds, grass, etc), tumors, or polyps can lead to ear infections. Underlying systemic problems such as hypothyroidism or allergies can often show up as only an ear problem.
Ear infections can progress from the outer ear canal into the middle or inner ear with serious consequences such as a head tilt, vestibular disease (balance problems) or facial nerve paralysis. With chronic ear problems, the ear canal can become very irregular and narrowed, and may even require surgery for relief. The best treatment is prevention. You should routinely check and clean your hound's ears at a minimum of once a week.
The best way to clean the ears is with the help of an ear cleaning solution made for use in dogs. There are many available, but some of my favorites are R-7 ear cleaner, Oticlens, Oticalm, Nolvasan Otic, and Epi-Otic.
Open up your dog's ear by holding the ear flap upward to form a sort-of-funnel, to see the opening of the ear canal. What you see is the opening of the vertical canal. Squirt a good amount of ear cleaner into the opening. Close up the ear by placing the ear flap over the canal opening. Gently massage the base of the ear near the skull. You'll hear the solution squishing around (as well as your hound moaning and groaning). Take a cotton ball and place it over the tip of your finger and gently wipe out any debris from the outer ear canal. Let your hound shake his head (you may want to step back a bit). This will bring debris up from deeper in the ear canal from the horizontal canal to the vertical canal where you can wipe it out. If the cotton ball is still very dirty, repeat the process. Don't use Q-tips, or try to reach down too far into the ear canal, you only end up pushing the debris in further. Let the centrifugal force of the head shaking and the ear solution to do a lot of the work for you.
It will depend on what is growing in your hound's ears as to what medication to use. It is best to have your vet do a smear from the ears and look under the microscope to determine if it is mites, yeast, or bacteria. If there is bacteria growing in your hounds ears it may be necessary to do a culture and sensitivity to determine the best medication. Sometimes it is necessary to use an oral antibiotic in conjunction with topical ear medications (especially with Pseudomonas infections). For medicating the ears, always clean them first, instill the medication, then massage the base of the ear to distribute the medication deeper into the ear canal.
Check your hound's ears routinely and keep them clean!
Common Treatments for Ear Conditions
|Otomax||General bacterial infection +/- for yeast|
|Gentocin Otic||E. Coli, Pseudomonas, Staph|
|Liquichlor||Strop, Staph, E Coli|
|Synotic||Allergic ototis, Inflammation|
This article is the sole possession of the author and is reprinted here by permission.
Disclaimer: This article is the personal opinion of the author for informational purposes only. The author make no warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of this information or will be liable for any loss, damages, claims or injury that accompany or result from any use of this material. This article may not be copied or distributed without the inclusion of this disclaimer.
by Karen Leshkivich, DVM
Epilepsy is divided into three types: Primary epileptic seizures (PES--i.e.idiopathic, inherited), Secondary epileptic seizures (SES), and Reactive epileptic seizures (RES).
Primary epileptic seizures are defined as abnormal brain function without any structural abnormalities in the brain. The seizure is the result of abnormal neurological imbalance in the brain. PES is what most breeders are concerned with since there is a genetic tendency with this form of epilepsy. But PES is not the only cause of seizures in dogs. PES is a 'diagnosis of exclusion,' in other words all other causes of seizures are ruled out before the diagnosis of 'Epilepsy' is made. There are at least 50 categories of problems that can cause seizures that are not the inherited 'epilepsy' that people first think of with the mention of the word 'seizure' (these are listed at the end of this article). It is documented that 1% to 6% of purebred dogs are affected with the hereditary (idiopathic) epilepsy. This is a single gene disorder that is recessive. Since it is a single gene defect in one gene (the actual gene affected is probably different for each breed of dog), in order for a dog to show signs of hereditary epilepsy, siblings, half siblings, a parent and at least one offspring must have the defective gene. In general, it is recommended that any dog with epilepsy not be bred, as well as any siblings or parents.
Secondary epilepsy seizures (SES) are defined as abnormal brain function associated with changes in the brain. There are so many causes of SES that I will list them at the end of the article to save time, but they include developmental, inflammatory, infectious, vascular, neoplasia (cancer), trauma and toxins. One of my own bloodhounds had begun having seizures at the age of 5, a few months after having had a litter. Initially, she only had short episodes of being non-responsive and weak that occurred sporadically. At that time, tests indicated that she had a white blood cell count of 50,000 (normal is 10,000). We treated her with antibiotics, and the 'episodes' stopped. About 6 months later, she began having frequent episodes of collapse, focal seizures and non-responsiveness, which escalated to full-blown seizures. Multiple tests were run on her, and even though she was always current on vaccinations, part of the neurological screening included a Distemper titer and conjuctival swab to look for Distemper bodies. The Distemper tests came back postive--she had active Canine Distemper even though she was fully vaccinated and an adult. To end the story, she was one of the very few that survived Distemper and her seizures stopped completely. She lived to be the age of 11 with no further health problems. None of her offspring ever exhibited any seizures. What had apparently happened with her was that the fulminate infection she had after having her litter (a severe uterine infection--endometritis), had compromised her immune system to the point that she did not respond to her yearly vaccination boosters; she had contacted a dog infected with Distemper and had contracted the disease. Her initial bouts of 'seizures' were due to the bacterial infection and the more severe seizures that occurred later were due to the viral Distemper infection in her brain. I told this story about one of my dogs, although it was a difficult time for both me and her, to show that seizures can be caused by, many other things other than hereditary epilepsy.
Reactive epileptic seizures (RES) are a reaction of the brain to systemic insult or physiologic stress (something else wrong in the body). Again, the list of causes is quite long and is summarized at the end of this article, but the major categories include: organ failure, electrolyte imbalance and energy deprivation. Simple things like low blood sugar can cause seizures; heart disease, liver disease, toxins that upset the sodium balance in the body--can all result in a reactive epileptic seizure.
Although the causes of epileptic seizures are many, they all can result in similar appearing seizures. Not to diminish the importance of being aware of the presence of hereditary seizures, it is important to determine the cause of the seizure so that an underlying condition can be treated. Only after all other causes have been ruled out can one say that a seizure was a result of hereditary epilepsy.
Causes of Seizures
|Primary Epileptic Seizures (PES)||Hereditary|
|Secondary Epileptic Seizures SES)||Developmental/Congenital: |
porencephaly (cysts in brain)
|Immune mediated: |
Cortocosteroid responsive inflammatory conditions
Thromboembolic: septic, tumor, cardiac spasm
|Neoplasia (tumor, cancer)|
|Reactive Epileptic Seizures (RES)||Organ failure: |
hepatic encephalopathy (liver disease)
uremic execephalopathy (kidney failure)
chronic kidney failure
|Electrolyte imbalance: |
calcium decrease: pancreatitis, kidney disease
|Energy deprivation: |
|Hypoxia (decreased oxygen): |
shock, heart failure
|Ischemia(decreased blood pressure): |
shock, heart failure
hunting dog hypoglycemia
Eye Issues - Dry Eye/Cherry Eye
Winter 1994 Bulletin
by Karen Leshkivich
KCS is a common problem among bloodhounds, in fact they are 5th on the list of breeds most likely to develop KCS. What is KCS--it is most commonly known as 'dry eye'. The problem is that there is insufficient tear production to keep the eye moist and lubricated. The dogs eyes will appear to have dry corneas as opposed to the normal shiny, wet cornea. They often have a ropy, white discharge at the corner of the eyes. As the disease progresses, their cornea become opaque or colored more darkly, this is referred to as corneal pigmentation and neovascularization. In some cases, they may develop corneal ulcers. KCS can have many causes, the primary one being that they are a bloodhound and the breed is predisposed to developing KCS, also things such as distemper infection, sulfa drugs, trauma to the eye, and lacrimal glad removal (or 'cherry eye' removal) can also lead to KCS.
In order to determine if your dog has KCS, a simple test called the Schirmer tear test can determine how much tear production your dog has. If when you look at your dogs eyes, they appear dry, or the corneas are not shiny and clear, or if there is a lot of discharge from the eyes, you should suspect KCS.
If KCS is left untreated, your bloodhound can become clinically blind. As the opacity and pigmentation of the corneas progress, your dog will not be able to see more than shadows between light and dark. I know many people joke about the fact that most bloodhounds act as if they were blind, always following their nose and ignoring the tree or parked car in their path, so they need to preserve all of the sight that they do have.
There have been many treatments for KCS, and there is a new treatment that is very exciting. Traditionally, treatment consists of topical artificial tears or ointments, but this requires application every few hours to be effective. Pilocarpine given orally has also been prescribed, as well as topical antibiotics if there is evidence of infection, or corticosteroids if persistent inflammation is a problem. A relatively new drug for treatment of KCS is cyclosporine A. This drug has been used in human medicine for years as an immunosuppressant for cancer treatment. Cyclosporine A has been found to be effective in treating KCS, although the exact mechanism of how it works is still not clear. It increases the tear production dramatically with only twice a day or even once a day application. This drug is currently supplied by a few pharmacies and veterinary medical colleges across the country and will soon be available through a major pharmaceutical company in ointment form. Since it is a new drug, it is still relatively expensive, but the dramatic results and improvement in the well being and sight of the dogs is well worth it.
The word we all fear hearing from our veterinarian
by Karen Leshkivich, DVM
Cancer--the very word seems ominous. Cancer is becoming more prevalent in bloodhounds, just as it is in people. This may be a consequence of longer lives or the contamination of our environment. I have lost several bloodhounds over the years to cancer, and it once again has reared its ugly head in my hounds. Since it is on my mind, I thought I might be able to quell some fears and offer some information and hope for others who have encountered it.
Cancer is generally a term used for malignant neoplasia (tumors), but some may refer to any tumor as cancer. Tumors can be benign (i.e. not likely to spread or cause disease) or they can be malignant (will recur or spread and do cause disease or death). If you have been told that your hound has cancer, ask exactly what it is and what are the options for treatment. Many types of tumors can be treated and/or cured, and likewise, many forms of cancer can be treated. There are many forms of chemotherapy available now. Dogs do not have the same reaction to chemotherapy as we do--they will not go bald or be nauseous for weeks. There are side effect to various chemotherapy's used in dogs, and these can often be avoided and treated. Chemotherapy can range from a few dollars to thousands of dollars, depending on the drug and protocol (number of treatments, combinations of drugs, etc.). There are even forms of immunotherapy available to try to stimulate the hound's own body to fight the cancer. There are forms of gene therapy for canine cancer on the horizon. Radiation treatment is also available, although you may have to travel to a facility that offers it. For many forms of cancer, surgery is a form of treatment or cure. Many veterinarians who are not comfortable with chemotherapy, do not refer cases, or may not be aware of currently available forms of therapy. Ask about all your options and get a second opinion if necessary.
With any tumor, lump or bump, I always recommend a biopsy. A biopsy provides a great deal of information that can help you make a decision for your hound's health. Not only does a biopsy tell us what it is, it also tells us if the whole thing was removed or if there is evidence that tumor cells have spread into blood vessels on the way to other areas of the body. This all helps in determining what, if any, additional treatment would be recommended, and what is the prognosis. Prognosis includes the chances that it will recur or spread, how long will your hound live, and what quality of life will your hound have in the remaining time. For some people, more time with their hound means a few months, for others it may mean a few years. A decision to pursue further treatment is an independent and personal decision, and each case is different. Just have as much information as possible to make an educated decision.
The most common types of cancer seen in dogs are lymphoma, hemangiosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. I have summarized a variety of tumors and cancers in a table to be used as just a general reference, not to be taken as a reference guide. Many tumors and cancers can have a good outcome if caught early enough. Check your hound from head to toe frequently. Even subtle things can mean there is a problem. Things like bad breath (worse than the usual doggie breath), thicker than normal drool, a cough, decreased appetite, drinking more water, and any lump, bump or skin color change could be the beginning of a problem. Know your hound so that you can detect something that is not normal for him or her. Every tumor, lump, bump or cancer should be checked out by your veterinarian. When you hear the word "cancer", don't automatically think that it is the end. Many forms of cancer and tumors can be treated; some can even be cured. Get as much information as you can, and make an educated decision that is right for you and your hound. Bloodhounds are special, and they deserve all we can do to make them comfortable, happy and healthy.
|Adenocarcinoma||Surgery +/-chemo||Depends on location: |
|Fibrosarcoma||Surgery||Depends on location-guarded|
|Hemangiosarcoma||Surgery +/-chemo||Guarded, can live months to years|
|Hepatoma (liver tumor)||Surgery||Good|
|Leukemia||Chemo||Guarded to good|
|Lymphoma||Chemo||Guarded to good|
|Malignant Melanoma||Surgery +/-chemo +/-radiation||Depends on location: |
mouth-85% already spread
foot-poor, already spread
|Pituitary Adenoma||Chemo +/-radiation||Good to guarded, size dependant|
|Squamous Cell Carcinoma||Surgery +/-chemo||Depends on location: |
mouth-guarded to poor
|Thyroid Carcinoma||Surgery +/-chemo||Guarded to poor|
by Karen Leshkivich, DVM
Hemangiosarcoma (HAS for short) is a from of cancer that is fairly common in dogs. There are three basics forms of HAS: dermal (skin), hypodermal (under the skin), and visceral (splenic or cardiac). While the visceral form is most common, dermal and hypodermal have been recently studied in detail. HAS is highly metastatic, and most forms of the disease are associated with a poor prognosis. The dermal form can potentially be cured with surgery alone, and many dogs may have a fair to excellent long-term prognosis.
Dermal and Hypodermal HAS account for 14% of all reported HAS. Dermal HAS often appears as a dark to purple skin lesion, which may be raised and appear on non-haired areas like the abdomen. Hypodermal HAS can occur anywhere on the body and may appear as a soft mass or be a firm invasive mass with ulceration. 30% of all dogs with dermal HAS develop metastatic disease, while 60% of dogs with hypodermal HAS develop metastatic disease.
Visceral HAS accounts for 2% of all reported malignancies and up to 5% of all noncutaneous tumors in dogs. Although these numbers seem small, they have a significant impact on dogs, since this form of cancer kills. The spleen and the right atrium of the heart are the most common sites of occurrence of visceral HAS. Dogs may have nonspecific signs such as lethargy, loss of appetite, weight loss or more specific signs such as difficulty breathing, pallor, or abdominal fluid. Regardless of the site of origin, visceral HAS is locally invasive and highly metastatic. Up to 25% of dogs with splenic HAS have cardiac HAS and up to 63% of dogs with atrial HAS have metastatic disease. Metastases commonly affect the lover, mesentery, lungs, and brain.
As with any malignancy, it is important to determine the extent of the disease. Even when spread of the cancer is not evident by eye, there is often microscopic spread at the time of diagnosis, therefore chemotherapy is recommended along with surgery. Since visceral HAS can metastasize to the skin , a dog with dermal or hypodermal HAS should be 'staged'. Staging involves doing bloodhwork, urinalysis, abdominal and chest x-rays, EKG, and ultrasound. The staging of the tumor is closely linked to prognosis. Dermal HAS has a 780 day mean survival time with surgery alone. Hypodermal HAS has only a 172 day mean survival time with surgery alone and chemotherapy is recommended. Visceral HAS has up to 65 day survival with surgery alone, and up to 6 months survival time with surgery and chemotherapy. A single agent chemotherapy is currently recommended . Combination chemotherapy was long thought to be the best , but recent studies show doxorubicin based therapy to have the same survival statistics. Immunotherapy is not yet commercially available, but shows promise in the near future for increased survival times.
The prognosis for dogs with HAS is guarded. Because it is so highly metastatic, dogs should be treated with surgery to remove any visible tumor and chemotherapy to treat any microscopic disease. Ultimately, metastatic disease occurs, chemotherapy resistance develops and available treatment modalities fail. Although cancer of any form is a frustrating and heartbreaking disease, treatment with surgery and chemotherapy is well tolerated and provides prolonged survival time and an enhanced quality of life.
What you need to know when you are away from your veterinarian
Summer 1997 ABC Bulletin
by Karen Leshkivich, DVM
Is is especially important for you to be prepared for an emergency when you are traveling with your dog or are away from your "home" veterinarian. With a little preparedness, a potentially disastrous or even fatal situation can be stabilized or minimized until professional care can be administered.
This article is quite lengthy, you can click on any of the below to go directly
to a specific area on First Aid
|Shock||Vomiting and Diarrhea|
|Cuts, Tears (nails, ears, ect.)||Reproductive|
What is normal?
It is very important for you to understand what is "normal" health for your dog. This includes the following:
Capillary Refill Time (CRT)
Chart A shows the normal range of values for these healthy factors.
Normal parameters for a Bloodhound
|Temperature||100-102 F||Use rectal thermometer, wait 1-2 minutes|
|Heart Rate||70-110 bpm||Check pulse on the L side of the chest or feel the femoral artery inside the back leg|
|CRT (Capillary Refill Time||<2 seconds||Gums should be a healthy pink color, when pressed, they should blanch white and return to pink|
|MM (gums)||Pink, moist|
|Water Intake||3.25 Qt./day|
|Skin Turger||Quick return||Skin on back of the neck should return to normal position quickly after being pinched up|
What is an emergency?
Following is a list of injuries, problems and illnesses that require immediate medical assistance for the health and safety of your dog. While there may be other medical situations that require aid, these are the most common.
Cuts/Torn nails/Cut ears
Vomiting and Diarrhea
Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
Bloat is a life threatening emergency. Reaction time from the moment discomfort is detected until veterinary assistance is rendered can have a great deal to do with "survivability" of the episode. It is very important to recognize and treat as soon as possible.
Painful distended abdomen
Attempting to vomit
Praying or crouched position
Curled into a ball
Looking at side
Seeking a hiding place
Vomiting foamy material
Red or white gums
If you are within 1/2 hour of your vet and you know bloat has just begun--get to the vet. If you can't get to the vet or the dog is already shocky or weak, you can attempt decompression.
Walk the dog to encourage motility of the stomach and bowels. Give the dog simethicone to help relieve gas.
Heavy panting, difficulty breathing
Weak, rapid pulse
Remove from heat
Cool the dog by submerging in cool water, hosing down or applying ice packs
Check the dogs temperature and stop cooling the dog if the temperature drops below 103 F
Offer small amounts of water
Seek veterinary care once the dog is stabilized
Pale white or gray gums
Weak and rapid pulse
Weakness or collapse
Keep the dog quiet
Place the dog on a blanket or stretcher to transport
Cover the dog with a blanket to keep him warm
Clear the mouth of any foreign objects
Perform CPR if necessary
Control any bleeding by applying a tourniquet
Do not force anything by mouth
Seek veterinary care as soon as possible
There are many medical reasons why a dog may seizure. Seizures are typically a symptom of a greater problem. Common signs of seizures include, but are not limited to: collapse, paddling of legs, involuntary muscle spasms, growling, urination and defecation, excessive watering of the mouth and inability to respond to his name. Seizures can vary in duration from only a few seconds to minutes
Handle the dog only if necessary to prevent injury to pet or people
If the dog is in a dangerous area, gently pull the dog away by the scruff of the neck, you can gently restrain the dog with a blanket or coat.
Do not give medications or place objects (including your fingers) in the dogs mouth.
Keep the animal calm/non stimulated after the seizure ends. Speak in a low, comforting voice.
If the breathing stops, give artificial respiration
Time the duration of the event
Seek immediate veterinary care and consultation.
After the seizure the "postictal" syndrome
The dog is often wobbly and dazed for up to 2 hours. Confine the dog to a small area. Allow the dog to drink small amounts of water, but do not give any food.
Cuts, Tears (nails, ears, etc.)
Nails--if partially torn, cut off the rest of the nail
Apply Quick Stop, flour or ice to assist coagulation
Apply a pressure bandage
Bandage by rolling ear up and wrap to head
Gently flush with water
If deep, bandage and get to vet (possible stitches)
Minor cuts, apply antibacterial ointment with or without a bandage
*refer to the poison tables
When to induce vomiting
YES-if within two hours if ingestion
NO-if it has been over 2 hours
NO-for certain substance: alkali, soaps, detergents, bleach, high concentration catatonic detergents, phenols, pine oils, petroleum, distillates.
How To Induce Vomiting
ipecac syrup-1 tablespoon, can repeat if necessary after 15 minutes
Hydrogen peroxide & salt-1 teaspoon salt to 3 teaspoons of Hydrogen peroxide, can repeat if necessary 10-15 minutes later
(Any eye injury is an emergency)
Foreign bodies in the eye-squinting third lid up, rubbing at eyes, discharge, red eye.
Rinse eye gently with eye wash solution
If foreign body is embedded in cornea, attempt to remove it.
Prevent dog from self trauma
Red "cherry" at the inner corner of eye
Seek veterinary care
Corneal scratches or ulcers
Squinting, tearing, pawing at eye
Do not apply any medications containing a steroid (dex, hydrocortisone, genotocin durafilm)
Seek veterinary care
White or gray tissue, self mutilation, loss of feeling, loss of tissue
Re-warm tissues slowly by applying moist heat, or by immersing in warm water
Do not rub or apply pressure bandages or ointments
Prevent self trauma
Demarcation of dead tissue in 4-7 days
Minor Burns (superficial)
If burn occurred within the hour, apply ice packs for 10 minutes
Gently clip hair from burn margins
Apply antibacterial cream to affected areas
Apply ice packs if possible
Keep animal quiet and prevent licking and scratching
Cover area loosely with gauze, do not apply ointments to severe burns
Seek veterinary care
Flush area with water for 10-15 minutes
Acids-rinse with baking soda water
Alkalis-rinse area with lemon juice or vinegar and water
Vomiting and Diarrhea
Withhold food for 24 hours
Place on bland diet such as boiled rice and chicken and feed 2-3 small meals per day for 1-2 days. Gradually reintroduce the regular diet over 1-2 days.
Consult vet if:
No improvement in 24 hours
Dog is acting depressed
Any other signs of illness
Over the counter medications:
Diarrhea--Kaopectate-3 tablespoons every 4 hours
Vomiting and Diarrhea--Pepto Bismol-1 1/2 tablespoons every 4 hours
With any problem during pregnancy or whelping, consult your veterinarian immediately.
1) More than 2 hours since last puppy whelped
2) Active contractions for more than 30 minutes and no puppies
3) Greenish vaginal discharge
4) Puppy partially expelled for more than 10 minutes
1) Low blood calcium
2) Restlessness, panting, tremoring, shaking, drooling
Pyometra Symptoms (usually 6-8 weeks after a heat cycle)
1) Excessive thirst and urination
2) Decreased appetite, vomiting
3) Lethargy, weakness
4) Brown, greenish vaginal discharge
1) Decreased appetite
2) Hunched, stilted gait, painful abdomen
3) Discolored urine
by Karen Leshkivich, DVM
Any good first aid kit for your dog should contain safety and medical items in case of an emergency. If your dog has individual needs, be sure to include them as well. Following is a basic list. Brand names may differ from place to place. If you have any questions about these items, please consult your veterinarian.
|Ace bandage||Rectal Thermometer|
|Roll gauze||Quick Stop (styptic)|
|Stretch Gauze/Cling||Cotton balls|
|Gauze squares||3% Hydrogen Peroxide|
|Sterile eye wash solution||Cotton Swabs|
|Gold Bond powder||Safety pins|
|Chlorhexiderm solution or scrub (Nolvasan)||Bandanas|
|Simethicon, Tums||Bloat Kit (Tube and mouthgag)|