Welcome to our world

How did these unique looking dogs in a baggy suit evolve? The bloodhound is one of the oldest breeds of dogs that hunt by scent. They are distinguished from other dogs by their pedulous ears, loose skin and extraordinary olfactory powers!  It is believed that the bloodhounds of today originated from two ancient strains of European hounds, the St Huberts and the Talbots dating to the 7th and 8th centuries.

The bloodhound came to prominence when William the Conqueror brought them to England, where they were originally used as game hunting dogs.  During colonization in the new world, the dogs were brought to America.Their true gift as amazing and remarkable man- trailing dogs was at last recognized.  The bloodhound soon became famous as the dog with the NOSE!!

Today, the bloodhound is the only breed that has the ability to scent discriminate human scent, and only trained bloodhounds evidence can be accepted in a court of law.  This skill is unmatched by any other breed of dog. Remarkably this same dog may be on a trail one day, in the show ring or obedience ring the next and lying on your couch or romping with your kids the day after that!  The bloodhound is capable of being a serious working dog and the most clownish lovable pet you will ever own, if you take the time to train him properly throughout his life.

Just remember ... you are now owned by a bloodhound and their motto is "What is in it for me?"


 
@American Bloodhound club

How do I care for my puppy

Eyes
You should clean your pup's eyes daily ... if there is any debris in the eyes, wipe them clean!
If they should appear cloudy, go to your vet.

 
Ears
Use a good ear cleaner and please obtain recommendations from your breeder or vet.
This must be done diligently as problems can arise very quickly! We like a wipe rather than liquid poured into their ears!

 
Coats
Brush every week ...  this eliminates dead hair.
Check the dewlap area (under the neck) for any hair loss or possible irritation.
A good habit of routine maintenance will help your dog look, feel and smell better.

 
Nails

Cut them every week!
Begin as soon as you get your pup and do it as part of your routine!
They do not make this an enjoyable task, but with patience, you will get it done.

 
Things to be careful about pertaining to bloodhounds
 
Bloat - major medical problem in our hounds, causes are unclear but can strike at any time and can kill your animal if not diagnosed and treated immediately!

Anesthesia - be careful, bloodhounds do not require the recommended dosage per pound, so please suggest to your vet to start with a lesser amount ... the use of barbiturate anesthesia is not recommended in bloodhounds!

Behavior - bloodhounds can be rather possessive, opportunistic and they don't like to share! You must run your home like the top dog! Be kind, but be the boss ... make sure you control your hound's whole life, all his belongings and especially his food! When he becomes a teenage, at about 8 to 9 months, he may try to challenge you. Never let him get the upper hand!

Socialization  - socialize your pup as much as you can. They enjoy new sounds, smells and sights!

Obedience - attend basic obedience, this will be a large dog and you want him to be controllable!

Crate Training - he is a cute little pup right now and your child wants the puppy to sleep with him, in his bed, don't do it ... this little pup will grow ... buy a large crate and use it now!

Fencing - never allow your bloodhound to roam free ... his nose will take him on a scent trail and he will forget you in a heartbeat and you will have a lost, stolen or dead dog!

Special Identification - microchip your pup ... it is simple and your vet can do it for you or your breeder.

Feeding - your breeder should go over this with you ... we free feed (filling the dish in the morning and evening), but everyone has their own way. Bloodhounds drink lots of water, so make sure you have plenty of fresh water available at all times. Please feed good dog food ... if the ingredients say it has corn ... don't use it!

Good breeders spend years studying pedigrees, evaluating health and talking to other breeders all over the world in an attempt to produce quality bloodhounds.  The background of a prospective breeding pair is extremely important in identifying and avoiding potential problems.  Prospective breeding hounds should be tested and screened for genetic disorders. For more information on the specific recommended screenings for bloodhounds, contact the Canine Health Information Center (www.caninehealthinfo.org) and for more information about performing these tests, contact the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (ww.ofa.org).  A reputable breeder will only sell pet puppies on a limited registration and with spay or neuter contracts. This assures that the dogs are not bred indiscriminately and that only the very best of each litter will be used in any future breeding program.  Spayed and neutered animals are not eligible to compete in AKC Conformation shows, but may compete in AKC Obedience, Agility and Tracking events.

If for any reason you are unable to keep your pet, contact your breeder - reputable breeders will happily and eagerly take the dog back regardless of age! 

If the initial price seems too good to be true ... ask yourself why and should I buy from this breeder? Please do your research, prior to buying from anyone!

Health Articles

Ears

Those Wonderful Bloodhound Ears
by Karen Leshkivich, DVM

Bloodhounds unfortunately have an ear designed for trouble. Those wonderful long, low set ears are great at trapping debris, moisture and heat producing the optimum dark environment for bacteria and yeast to grow. If you notice a foul odor or debris in the ear canal when you lift up that soft, long ear flap or if they are shaking their head, scratching at their ears, or rubbing their head on the floor or furniture, your hound may have an ear infection (otitis).

The most common culprits of ear infections are yeast (often a very dark brown buildup in the ear canal) or bacteria such as E. Coli, Staph or Pseudomonas. There are many predisposing factors to ear problems, other than their ear conformation. Activities such as swimming, or always laying on one side to sleep can result in an ear problem. Foreign bodies (weeds, grass, etc), tumors, or polyps can lead to ear infections. Underlying systemic problems such as hypothyroidism or allergies can often show up as only an ear problem.

Ear infections can progress from the outer ear canal into the middle or inner ear with serious consequences such as a head tilt, vestibular disease (balance problems) or facial nerve paralysis. With chronic ear problems, the ear canal can become very irregular and narrowed, and may even require surgery for relief. The best treatment is prevention. You should routinely check and clean your hound's ears at a minimum of once a week.

The best way to clean the ears is with the help of an ear cleaning solution made for use in dogs. There are many available, but some of my favorites are R-7 ear cleaner, Oticlens, Oticalm, Nolvasan Otic, and Epi-Otic.

Open up your dog's ear by holding the ear flap upward to form a sort-of-funnel, to see the opening of the ear canal. What you see is the opening of the vertical canal. Squirt a good amount of ear cleaner into the opening. Close up the ear by placing the ear flap over the canal opening. Gently massage the base of the ear near the skull. You'll hear the solution squishing around (as well as your hound moaning and groaning). Take a cotton ball and place it over the tip of your finger and gently wipe out any debris from the outer ear canal. Let your hound shake his head (you may want to step back a bit). This will bring debris up from deeper in the ear canal from the horizontal canal to the vertical canal where you can wipe it out. If the cotton ball is still very dirty, repeat the process. Don't use Q-tips, or try to reach down too far into the ear canal, you only end up pushing the debris in further. Let the centrifugal force of the head shaking and the ear solution to do a lot of the work for you.

It will depend on what is growing in your hound's ears as to what medication to use. It is best to have your vet do a smear from the ears and look under the microscope to determine if it is mites, yeast, or bacteria. If there is bacteria growing in your hounds ears it may be necessary to do a culture and sensitivity to determine the best medication. Sometimes it is necessary to use an oral antibiotic in conjunction with topical ear medications (especially with Pseudomonas infections). For medicating the ears, always clean them first, instill the medication, then massage the base of the ear to distribute the medication deeper into the ear canal.

Check your hound's ears routinely and keep them clean!

Common Treatments for Ear Conditions

Panalog Yeast
Otomax General bacterial infection +/- for yeast
Gentocin Otic E. Coli, Pseudomonas, Staph
Liquichlor Strop, Staph, E Coli
Synotic Allergic ototis, Inflammation
Tresaderm Mites, yeast




This article is the sole possession of the author and is reprinted here by permission.
Disclaimer: This article is the personal opinion of the author for informational purposes only. The author make no warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of this information or will be liable for any loss, damages, claims or injury that accompany or result from any use of this material. This article may not be copied or distributed without the inclusion of this disclaimer.

Epilepsyby

Epilepsy
by Karen Leshkivich, DVM

 

Epilepsy is divided into three types: Primary epileptic seizures (PES--i.e.idiopathic, inherited), Secondary epileptic seizures (SES), and Reactive epileptic seizures (RES).

Primary epileptic seizures are defined as abnormal brain function without any structural abnormalities in the brain. The seizure is the result of abnormal neurological imbalance in the brain. PES is what most breeders are concerned with since there is a genetic tendency with this form of epilepsy. But PES is not the only cause of seizures in dogs. PES is a 'diagnosis of exclusion,' in other words all other causes of seizures are ruled out before the diagnosis of 'Epilepsy' is made. There are at least 50 categories of problems that can cause seizures that are not the inherited 'epilepsy' that people first think of with the mention of the word 'seizure' (these are listed at the end of this article). It is documented that 1% to 6% of purebred dogs are affected with the hereditary (idiopathic) epilepsy. This is a single gene disorder that is recessive. Since it is a single gene defect in one gene (the actual gene affected is probably different for each breed of dog), in order for a dog to show signs of hereditary epilepsy, siblings, half siblings, a parent and at least one offspring must have the defective gene. In general, it is recommended that any dog with epilepsy not be bred, as well as any siblings or parents.

Secondary epilepsy seizures (SES) are defined as abnormal brain function associated with changes in the brain. There are so many causes of SES that I will list them at the end of the article to save time, but they include developmental, inflammatory, infectious, vascular, neoplasia (cancer), trauma and toxins. One of my own bloodhounds had begun having seizures at the age of 5, a few months after having had a litter. Initially, she only had short episodes of being non-responsive and weak that occurred sporadically. At that time, tests indicated that she had a white blood cell count of 50,000 (normal is 10,000). We treated her with antibiotics, and the 'episodes' stopped. About 6 months later, she began having frequent episodes of collapse, focal seizures and non-responsiveness, which escalated to full-blown seizures. Multiple tests were run on her, and even though she was always current on vaccinations, part of the neurological screening included a Distemper titer and conjuctival swab to look for Distemper bodies. The Distemper tests came back postive--she had active Canine Distemper even though she was fully vaccinated and an adult. To end the story, she was one of the very few that survived Distemper and her seizures stopped completely. She lived to be the age of 11 with no further health problems. None of her offspring ever exhibited any seizures. What had apparently happened with her was that the fulminate infection she had after having her litter (a severe uterine infection--endometritis), had compromised her immune system to the point that she did not respond to her yearly vaccination boosters; she had contacted a dog infected with Distemper and had contracted the disease. Her initial bouts of 'seizures' were due to the bacterial infection and the more severe seizures that occurred later were due to the viral Distemper infection in her brain. I told this story about one of my dogs, although it was a difficult time for both me and her, to show that seizures can be caused by, many other things other than hereditary epilepsy.

Reactive epileptic seizures (RES) are a reaction of the brain to systemic insult or physiologic stress (something else wrong in the body). Again, the list of causes is quite long and is summarized at the end of this article, but the major categories include: organ failure, electrolyte imbalance and energy deprivation. Simple things like low blood sugar can cause seizures; heart disease, liver disease, toxins that upset the sodium balance in the body--can all result in a reactive epileptic seizure.

Although the causes of epileptic seizures are many, they all can result in similar appearing seizures. Not to diminish the importance of being aware of the presence of hereditary seizures, it is important to determine the cause of the seizure so that an underlying condition can be treated. Only after all other causes have been ruled out can one say that a seizure was a result of hereditary epilepsy.


 

Causes of Seizures

Form Cause

Primary Epileptic Seizures (PES) Hereditary
Secondary Epileptic Seizures SES) Developmental/Congenital:
hydrocephalus
lissencelphaly
porencephaly (cysts in brain)
cortical dysplasia
vascular malformation
  Inflammatory:
Viral:
Canine distemper
Rabies
Pseudorabies
  Fungal:
cryptococcosis
coccidiomyrosis
blastomyosis
  Bacterial:
sepsis
meningitis
  Parasitic:
protozoal
neospora
toxoplasmosis
nematodes
  Immune mediated:
Granulomatous Meningioencephalitis
Cortocosteroid responsive inflammatory conditions
  Vascular:
Thromboembolic: septic, tumor, cardiac spasm
hemorrage--hypertension
  Neoplasia (tumor, cancer)
  Traumatic
  Toxicity:
lead
organophosphate
carbamates
ethylene glycol
Reactive Epileptic Seizures (RES) Organ failure:
hepatic encephalopathy (liver disease)
portosystemic shunt
uremic execephalopathy (kidney failure)
chronic kidney failure
  Electrolyte imbalance:
sodium decrease
sodium increase
calcium decrease: pancreatitis, kidney disease
  Hyperlipoproteinemia
  Energy deprivation:
Nutritional
hypoglycemia
Thiamine deficiency
  Hypoxia (decreased oxygen):
shock, heart failure
  Ischemia(decreased blood pressure):
shock, heart failure
  Hypoglycemia:
insulinoma
juvenile hypoglycemia
sepsis
hunting dog hypoglycemia
endocrine disease

Eye Issues - Dry Eye/Cherry Eye

Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca (KCS)
Winter 1994 Bulletin
by Karen Leshkivich

KCS is a common problem among bloodhounds, in fact they are 5th on the list of breeds most likely to develop KCS. What is KCS--it is most commonly known as 'dry eye'. The problem is that there is insufficient tear production to keep the eye moist and lubricated. The dogs eyes will appear to have dry corneas as opposed to the normal shiny, wet cornea. They often have a ropy, white discharge at the corner of the eyes. As the disease progresses, their cornea become opaque or colored more darkly, this is referred to as corneal pigmentation and neovascularization. In some cases, they may develop corneal ulcers. KCS can have many causes, the primary one being that they are a bloodhound and the breed is predisposed to developing KCS, also things such as distemper infection, sulfa drugs, trauma to the eye, and lacrimal glad removal (or 'cherry eye' removal) can also lead to KCS.

In order to determine if your dog has KCS, a simple test called the Schirmer tear test can determine how much tear production your dog has. If when you look at your dogs eyes, they appear dry, or the corneas are not shiny and clear, or if there is a lot of discharge from the eyes, you should suspect KCS.

If KCS is left untreated, your bloodhound can become clinically blind. As the opacity and pigmentation of the corneas progress, your dog will not be able to see more than shadows between light and dark. I know many people joke about the fact that most bloodhounds act as if they were blind, always following their nose and ignoring the tree or parked car in their path, so they need to preserve all of the sight that they do have.

There have been many treatments for KCS, and there is a new treatment that is very exciting. Traditionally, treatment consists of topical artificial tears or ointments, but this requires application every few hours to be effective. Pilocarpine given orally has also been prescribed, as well as topical antibiotics if there is evidence of infection, or corticosteroids if persistent inflammation is a problem. A relatively new drug for treatment of KCS is cyclosporine A. This drug has been used in human medicine for years as an immunosuppressant for cancer treatment. Cyclosporine A has been found to be effective in treating KCS, although the exact mechanism of how it works is still not clear. It increases the tear production dramatically with only twice a day or even once a day application. This drug is currently supplied by a few pharmacies and veterinary medical colleges across the country and will soon be available through a major pharmaceutical company in ointment form. Since it is a new drug, it is still relatively expensive, but the dramatic results and improvement in the well being and sight of the dogs is well worth it.

Cancer

Cancer
The word we all fear hearing from our veterinarian
by Karen Leshkivich, DVM

Cancer--the very word seems ominous. Cancer is becoming more prevalent in bloodhounds, just as it is in people. This may be a consequence of longer lives or the contamination of our environment. I have lost several bloodhounds over the years to cancer, and it once again has reared its ugly head in my hounds. Since it is on my mind, I thought I might be able to quell some fears and offer some information and hope for others who have encountered it.

Cancer is generally a term used for malignant neoplasia (tumors), but some may refer to any tumor as cancer. Tumors can be benign (i.e. not likely to spread or cause disease) or they can be malignant (will recur or spread and do cause disease or death). If you have been told that your hound has cancer, ask exactly what it is and what are the options for treatment. Many types of tumors can be treated and/or cured, and likewise, many forms of cancer can be treated. There are many forms of chemotherapy available now. Dogs do not have the same reaction to chemotherapy as we do--they will not go bald or be nauseous for weeks. There are side effect to various chemotherapy's used in dogs, and these can often be avoided and treated. Chemotherapy can range from a few dollars to thousands of dollars, depending on the drug and protocol (number of treatments, combinations of drugs, etc.). There are even forms of immunotherapy available to try to stimulate the hound's own body to fight the cancer. There are forms of gene therapy for canine cancer on the horizon. Radiation treatment is also available, although you may have to travel to a facility that offers it. For many forms of cancer, surgery is a form of treatment or cure. Many veterinarians who are not comfortable with chemotherapy, do not refer cases, or may not be aware of currently available forms of therapy. Ask about all your options and get a second opinion if necessary.

With any tumor, lump or bump, I always recommend a biopsy. A biopsy provides a great deal of information that can help you make a decision for your hound's health. Not only does a biopsy tell us what it is, it also tells us if the whole thing was removed or if there is evidence that tumor cells have spread into blood vessels on the way to other areas of the body. This all helps in determining what, if any, additional treatment would be recommended, and what is the prognosis. Prognosis includes the chances that it will recur or spread, how long will your hound live, and what quality of life will your hound have in the remaining time. For some people, more time with their hound means a few months, for others it may mean a few years. A decision to pursue further treatment is an independent and personal decision, and each case is different. Just have as much information as possible to make an educated decision.

The most common types of cancer seen in dogs are lymphoma, hemangiosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. I have summarized a variety of tumors and cancers in a table to be used as just a general reference, not to be taken as a reference guide. Many tumors and cancers can have a good outcome if caught early enough. Check your hound from head to toe frequently. Even subtle things can mean there is a problem. Things like bad breath (worse than the usual doggie breath), thicker than normal drool, a cough, decreased appetite, drinking more water, and any lump, bump or skin color change could be the beginning of a problem. Know your hound so that you can detect something that is not normal for him or her. Every tumor, lump, bump or cancer should be checked out by your veterinarian. When you hear the word "cancer", don't automatically think that it is the end. Many forms of cancer and tumors can be treated; some can even be cured. Get as much information as you can, and make an educated decision that is right for you and your hound. Bloodhounds are special, and they deserve all we can do to make them comfortable, happy and healthy.

Tumor/cancer Treatment Prognosis
Adenocarcinoma Surgery +/-chemo Depends on location:
mammary-guarded
liver-poor
ear-good
Fibrosarcoma Surgery Depends on location-guarded
Hemangioma Surgery Good
Hemangiosarcoma Surgery +/-chemo Guarded, can live months to years
Hepatoma (liver tumor) Surgery Good
Leukemia Chemo Guarded to good
Lipoma +/-Surgery Good
Lymphoma Chemo Guarded to good
Melanoma Surgery Good
Malignant Melanoma Surgery +/-chemo +/-radiation Depends on location:
mouth-85% already spread
foot-poor, already spread
Osteosarcoma Surgery, chemo Poor
Pituitary Adenoma Chemo +/-radiation Good to guarded, size dependant
Squamous Cell Carcinoma Surgery +/-chemo Depends on location:
mouth-guarded to poor
skin-good
Thyroid Carcinoma Surgery +/-chemo Guarded to poor
Hemangiosarcoma
by Karen Leshkivich, DVM

Hemangiosarcoma (HAS for short) is a from of cancer that is fairly common in dogs. There are three basics forms of HAS: dermal (skin), hypodermal (under the skin), and visceral (splenic or cardiac). While the visceral form is most common, dermal and hypodermal have been recently studied in detail. HAS is highly metastatic, and most forms of the disease are associated with a poor prognosis. The dermal form can potentially be cured with surgery alone, and many dogs may have a fair to excellent long-term prognosis.

Dermal and Hypodermal HAS account for 14% of all reported HAS. Dermal HAS often appears as a dark to purple skin lesion, which may be raised and appear on non-haired areas like the abdomen. Hypodermal HAS can occur anywhere on the body and may appear as a soft mass or be a firm invasive mass with ulceration. 30% of all dogs with dermal HAS develop metastatic disease, while 60% of dogs with hypodermal HAS develop metastatic disease.

Visceral HAS accounts for 2% of all reported malignancies and up to 5% of all noncutaneous tumors in dogs. Although these numbers seem small, they have a significant impact on dogs, since this form of cancer kills. The spleen and the right atrium of the heart are the most common sites of occurrence of visceral HAS. Dogs may have nonspecific signs such as lethargy, loss of appetite, weight loss or more specific signs such as difficulty breathing, pallor, or abdominal fluid. Regardless of the site of origin, visceral HAS is locally invasive and highly metastatic. Up to 25% of dogs with splenic HAS have cardiac HAS and up to 63% of dogs with atrial HAS have metastatic disease. Metastases commonly affect the lover, mesentery, lungs, and brain.

As with any malignancy, it is important to determine the extent of the disease. Even when spread of the cancer is not evident by eye, there is often microscopic spread at the time of diagnosis, therefore chemotherapy is recommended along with surgery. Since visceral HAS can metastasize to the skin , a dog with dermal or hypodermal HAS should be 'staged'. Staging involves doing bloodhwork, urinalysis, abdominal and chest x-rays, EKG, and ultrasound. The staging of the tumor is closely linked to prognosis. Dermal HAS has a 780 day mean survival time with surgery alone. Hypodermal HAS has only a 172 day mean survival time with surgery alone and chemotherapy is recommended. Visceral HAS has up to 65 day survival with surgery alone, and up to 6 months survival time with surgery and chemotherapy. A single agent chemotherapy is currently recommended . Combination chemotherapy was long thought to be the best , but recent studies show doxorubicin based therapy to have the same survival statistics. Immunotherapy is not yet commercially available, but shows promise in the near future for increased survival times.

The prognosis for dogs with HAS is guarded. Because it is so highly metastatic, dogs should be treated with surgery to remove any visible tumor and chemotherapy to treat any microscopic disease. Ultimately, metastatic disease occurs, chemotherapy resistance develops and available treatment modalities fail. Although cancer of any form is a frustrating and heartbreaking disease, treatment with surgery and chemotherapy is well tolerated and provides prolonged survival time and an enhanced quality of life.

First Aid

First Aid for the Traveling Bloodhound
What you need to know when you are away from your veterinarian
Summer 1997 ABC Bulletin
by Karen Leshkivich, DVM

Is is especially important for you to be prepared for an emergency when you are traveling with your dog or are away from your "home" veterinarian. With a little preparedness, a potentially disastrous or even fatal situation can be stabilized or minimized until professional care can be administered.

This article is quite lengthy, you can click on any of the below to go directly
to a specific area on First Aid

GDV/Bloat Frost Bite
Heat Stroke Burns
Shock Vomiting and Diarrhea
Seizures Insect Bites
Cuts, Tears (nails, ears, ect.) Reproductive
Poisoning  
Eyes  

What is normal?
It is very important for you to understand what is "normal" health for your dog. This includes the following:
Temperature
Heart Rate
Respiratory Rate
Capillary Refill Time (CRT)
MM (gums)
Water Intake
Skin Turger
Abdominal State

Chart A shows the normal range of values for these healthy factors.

Chart A
Normal parameters for a Bloodhound

Parameter Normal Value Procedure
Temperature 100-102 F Use rectal thermometer, wait 1-2 minutes
Heart Rate 70-110 bpm Check pulse on the L side of the chest or feel the femoral artery inside the back leg
Respiratory Rate 12-20/min  
CRT (Capillary Refill Time <2 seconds Gums should be a healthy pink color, when pressed, they should blanch white and return to pink
MM (gums) Pink, moist  
Water Intake 3.25 Qt./day  
Skin Turger Quick return Skin on back of the neck should return to normal position quickly after being pinched up

What is an emergency?
Following is a list of injuries, problems and illnesses that require immediate medical assistance for the health and safety of your dog. While there may be other medical situations that require aid, these are the most common.

Gastric Dilitation/Bloat
Heat Stroke
Shock
Seizures
Cuts/Torn nails/Cut ears
Poisonings
Eye injuries
Frostbite
Burns
Vomiting and Diarrhea
Insect Bites
Reproductive Emergencies
Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)

GDV/Bloat
Bloat is a life threatening emergency. Reaction time from the moment discomfort is detected until veterinary assistance is rendered can have a great deal to do with "survivability" of the episode. It is very important to recognize and treat as soon as possible.

Signs:
Painful distended abdomen
Pacing
Drooling
Attempting to vomit
Praying or crouched position
Curled into a ball
Looking at side
Seeking a hiding place
Drinking excessively
Vomiting foamy material
Panting
Red or white gums

Actions:
If you are within 1/2 hour of your vet and you know bloat has just begun--get to the vet. If you can't get to the vet or the dog is already shocky or weak, you can attempt decompression.

Simple Bloat
Walk the dog to encourage motility of the stomach and bowels. Give the dog simethicone to help relieve gas.

Severe Bloat

Heat stroke
Signs:
Heavy panting, difficulty breathing
Vomiting
Weak, rapid pulse
Temperature elevated
Collapse
Actions:
Remove from heat
Cool the dog by submerging in cool water, hosing down or applying ice packs
Check the dogs temperature and stop cooling the dog if the temperature drops below 103 F
Offer small amounts of water
Seek veterinary care once the dog is stabilized

Shock
Signs:
Pale white or gray gums
Dazed look
Shallow breathing
Weak and rapid pulse
Weakness or collapse
Actions:
Keep the dog quiet
Place the dog on a blanket or stretcher to transport
Cover the dog with a blanket to keep him warm
Clear the mouth of any foreign objects
Perform CPR if necessary
Control any bleeding by applying a tourniquet
Do not force anything by mouth
Seek veterinary care as soon as possible

Seizures
There are many medical reasons why a dog may seizure. Seizures are typically a symptom of a greater problem. Common signs of seizures include, but are not limited to: collapse, paddling of legs, involuntary muscle spasms, growling, urination and defecation, excessive watering of the mouth and inability to respond to his name. Seizures can vary in duration from only a few seconds to minutes
Actions:
Stay calm
Handle the dog only if necessary to prevent injury to pet or people
If the dog is in a dangerous area, gently pull the dog away by the scruff of the neck, you can gently restrain the dog with a blanket or coat.
Do not give medications or place objects (including your fingers) in the dogs mouth.
Keep the animal calm/non stimulated after the seizure ends. Speak in a low, comforting voice.
If the breathing stops, give artificial respiration
Time the duration of the event
Seek immediate veterinary care and consultation.

After the seizure the "postictal" syndrome
The dog is often wobbly and dazed for up to 2 hours. Confine the dog to a small area. Allow the dog to drink small amounts of water, but do not give any food.

Cuts, Tears (nails, ears, etc.)
Tears actions:
Stay calm
Nails--if partially torn, cut off the rest of the nail
Apply Quick Stop, flour or ice to assist coagulation
Apply a pressure bandage
Ears--Apply pressure
Bandage by rolling ear up and wrap to head

Cuts Actions:
Gently flush with water
If deep, bandage and get to vet (possible stitches)
Minor cuts, apply antibacterial ointment with or without a bandage

Poisoning
*refer to the poison tables
When to induce vomiting
YES-if within two hours if ingestion
NO-if it has been over 2 hours
NO-for certain substance: alkali, soaps, detergents, bleach, high concentration catatonic detergents, phenols, pine oils, petroleum, distillates.

How To Induce Vomiting
ipecac syrup-1 tablespoon, can repeat if necessary after 15 minutes
Hydrogen peroxide & salt-1 teaspoon salt to 3 teaspoons of Hydrogen peroxide, can repeat if necessary 10-15 minutes later

Eyes
(Any eye injury is an emergency)
Signs:
Foreign bodies in the eye-squinting third lid up, rubbing at eyes, discharge, red eye.
Actions:
Rinse eye gently with eye wash solution
If foreign body is embedded in cornea, attempt to remove it.
Prevent dog from self trauma
Cherry eye
Signs:
Red "cherry" at the inner corner of eye
Action:
Seek veterinary care
Corneal scratches or ulcers
Signs:
Squinting, tearing, pawing at eye
Action:
Do not apply any medications containing a steroid (dex, hydrocortisone, genotocin durafilm)
Seek veterinary care

Frost bite:
Signs:
White or gray tissue, self mutilation, loss of feeling, loss of tissue
Actions:
Re-warm tissues slowly by applying moist heat, or by immersing in warm water
Do not rub or apply pressure bandages or ointments
Prevent self trauma
Demarcation of dead tissue in 4-7 days

Burns
Minor Burns (superficial)
Actions:
If burn occurred within the hour, apply ice packs for 10 minutes
Gently clip hair from burn margins
Apply antibacterial cream to affected areas
Severe Burns
Actions:
Apply ice packs if possible
Keep animal quiet and prevent licking and scratching
Cover area loosely with gauze, do not apply ointments to severe burns
Seek veterinary care
Chemical Burns
Actions:
Flush area with water for 10-15 minutes
Acids-rinse with baking soda water
Alkalis-rinse area with lemon juice or vinegar and water

Vomiting and Diarrhea
Actions:
Withhold food for 24 hours
Place on bland diet such as boiled rice and chicken and feed 2-3 small meals per day for 1-2 days. Gradually reintroduce the regular diet over 1-2 days.
Consult vet if:
No improvement in 24 hours
Dog is acting depressed
Any other signs of illness
Over the counter medications:
Diarrhea--Kaopectate-3 tablespoons every 4 hours
Vomiting and Diarrhea--Pepto Bismol-1 1/2 tablespoons every 4 hours

Insect Bites
Actions:
Remove stinger
Apply cold pack
Apply cortisone cream
If any swelling, increased heart rate, shortness of breath--take to vet
Give Benadryl (50-75 mg every 8-12 hours)

Reproductive
With any problem during pregnancy or whelping, consult your veterinarian immediately.
Dystocia Symptoms
1) More than 2 hours since last puppy whelped
2) Active contractions for more than 30 minutes and no puppies
3) Greenish vaginal discharge
4) Puppy partially expelled for more than 10 minutes
Eclampsia Symptoms
1) Low blood calcium
2) Restlessness, panting, tremoring, shaking, drooling
Pyometra Symptoms (usually 6-8 weeks after a heat cycle)
1) Excessive thirst and urination
2) Decreased appetite, vomiting
3) Lethargy, weakness
4) Brown, greenish vaginal discharge
5) Temperature
Prostatis Symptoms
1) Decreased appetite
2) Hunched, stilted gait, painful abdomen
3) Discolored urine
4) Temperature

 

Essentials of a First Aid Kit
by Karen Leshkivich, DVM

Any good first aid kit for your dog should contain safety and medical items in case of an emergency. If your dog has individual needs, be sure to include them as well. Following is a basic list. Brand names may differ from place to place. If you have any questions about these items, please consult your veterinarian.
 

Ace bandage Rectal Thermometer
Roll gauze Quick Stop (styptic)
Stretch Gauze/Cling Cotton balls
White tape Tweezers
Telfa pads Scissors
Gauze squares 3% Hydrogen Peroxide
Antibacterial ointment Salt
Sterile eye wash solution Cotton Swabs
Gold Bond powder Safety pins
Chlorhexiderm solution or scrub (Nolvasan) Bandanas
Simethicon, Tums Bloat Kit (Tube and mouthgag)

 

Dangerous Plants and Metals

These plants can be harmful to kids and pets
Angel Trumpet (all of the plant) Hyacinth (bulb)
Azalea (all) Iris (all)
Bittersweet (leaves, fruit) Jerusalem Cherry (leaves and unripe fruit)
Buckhorn (all) Lily of the Valley (all) 
Caladium (all) Mistletoe (all)
Castor Bean (all) Mushrooms (all of certain types)
Chinese Lantern (all) Narcissus (all)
Chrysanthemum (all) Nightshade (all)
Creeping Charlie (all) Oleander (all)
Daffodil (all) Peony (roots)
Delphinium (all) Philodendron (all)
English Ivy (all) Potato (sprouts, vines, unripe tubers)
Foxglove (leaf, seeds) Rhododendron (all)
Gladiola (bulb) Rhubarb (roots, leaves)
Holly (all) Trumpet Lily (all)
Horse Chestnut (flower, sprout, and seeds) Vinca Vine (all)

Plant Toxicity

Insoluble Oxalates (refer to table) mucosal inflammation, salivation, pawing at mouth, vomiting, diarrhea rinse mouth w/water or milk
+/- induce vomiting
Soluble Oxalates (refer to table) convulsions, tremors, cardiac, drinking or urinating excessively induce vomiting, hospitalization
Grayanotoxin Plants
(rhododendron, mountain laurel, Jaranese pieris)
vomiting, diarrhea, CNS, depression, weakness, seizures, increased heart rate induce vomiting, very toxic, hospitalization
Toxalbumin Plants (castor bean, mole bean, castor oil) vomiting, diarrhea, systemic signs seeds very toxic, induce vomiting
Amaryllis
(daffodil, tulip, hyacinth, iris)
vomiting, diarrhea, seizures induce vomiting
Cycads (false sago palm) vomiting, salivation, red gums, depression, excessive drinking seeds very toxic, induce vomiting, hospitalize
Liliaceae (Easter lily, tiger lily, day lily) minor GI upset induce vomiting
Marijuana unsteady, vomiting, CNS, depression more harmful if dry, induce vomiting
Onion (garlic, chives, onion) hemolysis, bloody urine, anemia, weakness, jaundice 5.5 gm of dry onion/kg can cause hemolysis and anemia
induce vomiting, hospitalize

By Dr. Becker

Tis the blooming season, which means it’s time for a quick review of which plants are pet-friendly, and which you should steer clear of if you have furry family members at home.

Veterinary journal dvm360 and Dr. Justine Lee have compiled a list of the most common indoor and outdoor plants poisonous to dogs and cats.1

Top 4 Outdoor Plants Poisonous to Pets

1.Sago palm

The sago is a landscaping palm commonly found in warm, humid climates. It’s also sometimes found indoors as a small bonsai or houseplant. All parts of this palm are poisonous, and especially the seeds. Just one to two seeds from a female sago can cause symptoms of poisoning in pets.

This plant can damage your dog’s or cat’s GI tract (signs are loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea), central nervous system (unsteady gait, tremors, seizure, even coma) and liver (jaundice, black tarry stool).

The sago is potentially deadly, so if your pet (most often a dog) ingests any part of it, you must seek immediate veterinary treatment.

Your pet will need to be hospitalized for decontamination (inducing vomiting, which can only be safely done by a veterinarian, and administering activated charcoal to bind the poison), IV fluids, administration of necessary medications and supportive care.

2.Lilies

Lilies from the lilium and hemerocallis species (called “true” lilies) are deadly to kitties. These include the Easter, tiger, Japanese show, stargazer, rubrum and day lily.

Just two to three leaves or petals, or even the pollen or water from a vase holding the lilies, can result in severe acute kidney failure and death.

Signs of poisoning include vomiting, lack of appetite, abnormal urination, lethargy and progressive kidney damage. Treatment typically involves a 48-hour hospital stay, aggressive decontamination, anti-vomiting meds and IV fluids.

With immediate treatment, especially aggressive decontamination and IV fluids, the vast majority of cats can survive this type of poisoning.

3.Plants containing cardiac glycosides

This includes dogbane, foxglove, milkweed, kalanchoe, lily of the valley and oleander. The good news is these plants have been instrumental in the development of life-saving heart medications for both humans and animals.

The bad news is accidental ingestion of these substances by a cat or dog can be life-threatening.

Signs of poisoning involve the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (drooling, vomiting), the cardiovascular system (very slow or rapid heart rate, arrhythmia), electrolyte imbalances (e.g., high potassium levels) and central nervous system signs (dilated pupils, tremors, seizures).

Immediate veterinary intervention is required, and will include decontamination, IV fluids, heart and blood pressure monitoring, heart medications and supportive care.

4.Blue-green algae

Blue-green algae poisoning is fortunately rare, but just a tiny amount (a few licks) can be fatal. Blue-green algae, or cyanobacteria, grow on top of freshwater or brackish bodies of water. Typically, the algae blossoms during warm, humid weather.

The toxins found in cyanobacteria can cause severe liver failure and neurologic signs and can cause death within a matter of hours. Keep your pet away from any water with algae floating on it, because it’s impossible to know if it’s the deadly kind without laboratory analysis.

Sadly, even with aggressive treatment including IV fluids, blood transfusions and appropriate medications, the prognosis is poor for pets who consume blue-green algae.

Top 5 Indoor Plants to Keep Out of Reach of Your Pet

1.Plants from the Araceae family

These include the philodendron, pothos, peace lily, calla lily, dumb cane, arrowhead vine, mother-in-law’s tongue, sweetheart vine, devil’s ivy, umbrella plant and elephant ear.

These are common houseplants and contain insoluble calcium oxalate crystals. If your pet chews on one of them, it can cause severe mouth pain. Signs your dog or cat may have sampled one of these plants include drooling, pawing at the mouth, a swollen muzzle or lips and occasionally, vomiting.

Fortunately, these plants aren’t considered deadly, so if your pet chews one, give him some milk or yogurt to minimize damage from the calcium oxalate crystals. Keep a close watch on him, and if his symptoms don’t subside or get worse, call your veterinarian.

2.English shamrock, rhubarb (leaves) and tropical star fruit

These houseplants contain soluble calcium oxalates, which are very different from insoluble calcium oxalate plants.

Fortunately, pet poisonings involving these plants are rare, but when it happens it’s a life-threatening emergency because ingestion causes blood calcium levels to plummet, and can also cause calcium oxalate crystals to form in the kidneys, causing acute kidney failure.

Signs of poisoning include drooling, lack of appetite, vomiting, lethargy, tremors and abnormal urination. If you know or suspect your pet has ingested one of these plants, call your veterinarian right away. Blood tests and intravenous (IV) fluids will be necessary.

3.Kalanchoe

Kalanchoe plants are absolutely beautiful but unfortunately, they are also absolutely deadly if your dog or cat nibbles on one because they contain cardiac glycosides.

Signs of poisoning involve the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (drooling, vomiting), the cardiovascular system (very slow or rapid heart rate, arrhythmia), electrolyte imbalances (e.g., high potassium levels) and central nervous system signs (dilated pupils, tremors, seizures).

Immediate veterinary intervention is required, and will include decontamination, IV fluids, heart and blood pressure monitoring, heart medications and supportive care.

4.Corn plant/dragon tree

Corn plants contain saponins, which are anti-nutrients that interfere with absorption of essential nutrients. If your pet should sample a corn plant, it can cause dilated pupils, drooling, vomiting, diarrhea and lethargy. This is a much more benign type of poisoning than some others, but you’ll still want to keep this plant out of your dog’s or cat’s reach.

5.Spring flowers

Certain spring bulbs, including daffodils, hyacinth and tulips, can cause mild vomiting or diarrhea in pets who ingest them. If a massive amount of bulbs are eaten, they can actually cause an obstruction in your pet’s stomach or intestines. Complications can include an elevated heart and respiration rate, and much less commonly, a drop in blood pressure and tremors or seizures.

The greens and flowers themselves are generally thought to be safe if your dog or cat nibbles on them — it’s the bulbs that pose the greatest danger. If your pet ingests the bulbs, he’ll be treated with decontamination, fluid therapy and anti-vomiting meds if necessary.

Remember, even if you only suspect your pet has sampled a toxic plant, it's better to be safe than sorry. Contact your veterinarian, the nearest emergency animal hospital, the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center at 888-426-4435, or the Pet Poison Helpline at 855-764-7661.

  •  
Metals
  Signs Lethal/Toxic Dose
Lead GI signs, anemia  
Zinc (pennies, crate nuts) Vomiting, CNS, lethargy, anemia   
Batteries esophageal or GI erosion  
Drugs
Cold Medications (pseudoephedrine) vomiting, hyperactivity, heart rate  Induce vomiting within 1 hour of ingestion
(Antihistamines) sedation, unsteadiness  
Vitamin/Mineral supplements (Iron)   Toxic dose=4 gm=15 tablets
(Vitamin A)   Toxic dose=200,000U=4 caps 
(Vitamin D)   Toxic dose=30,000IU/kg
Theobromine (Chocolate) Vomiting, diarrhea, seizure, coma, liver damage, pancreatitis semisweet=2# milk=5#
bakers chocolate=1#
Caffeine, theophylline hyperexcitability, seizures, coma, tremors, pancreatitis toxic=4 gm=10tablets(NoDoz)=20 weigt control tabs
Antidepressants (Amitriptyline)  hyperexcitable, CNS, cardiac Lethal=680 mg=10 (50 mg tabs)
Amphetamines hyperexcitablility Lethal=400 mg
Barbiturates CNS depression Dangerous=90 mg
Aspirin vomiting, GI ulceration Dangerous=2,000 mg-6 tablets
Acetaminophen (Tylenol, Datril, Anacin) liver damage Toxic=9,000 mg=30 tablets Dangerous=600 mg=3 tablets
NSAIDS (Ibuprofen, Advil, Midol, Ketoprofen, Naproxen GI bleeding, ulceration Dangerous=2,000 mg=10 tablets
Toxic=4,000 mg=20 tablets
Pesticides
Organophosphates (pyrethrins, carbamates) Salivation, diarrhea, tremors, vomiting, unsteady 2 flea collars=toxic dose
induce vomiting
bathe to remove residue
Citrus Oils (D-limonene) depression, unsteadiness Toxic=125,00 mg
Strychnine seizures, rigidity, hypersensitive Induce vomiting
Lethal=30 mg
Common Household Hazards
  Signs   Treatment
Soaps, detergents (Alkaline, corrosive) vomiting, diarrhea low DO NOT induce vomiting
milk and water
Soaps, detergents (Nonalkaline) vomiting, diarrhea  low If more than 20 g/kg ingested with no vomiting within 30 min, induce vomiting
Cationic detergents(quaternary ammonia) vomiting, diarrhea, CNS, seizures high if >7.5% conc.-DO NOT induce vomiting, give milk, water, egg whites if low conc.-induce vomiting
Bleach vomiting, diarrhea low DO NOT induce vomiting give milk and water
Disinfectants (Phenol) liver, kidney damage high DO NOT induce vomiting, give milk and water. Lethal=20 gm=0.05# 
Pine oils (turpentine) vomiting, salivation, CNS, respiratory high DO NOT induce vomiting, give milk, water, egg whites. Toxic=1 oz. to 1/2 cup
Petroleum distillates aspiration pneumonia high DO NOT induce vomiting
lethal=20 mg=1 Tbsp
Alcohols CNS, cardiac, respiratory  mod toxic=1/2-1 cup
induce vomiting if large amount
Ethylene glycol (antifreeze) CNS, respiratory, cardiac, kidney failure high lethal=1 cup
induce vomiting
Propylene glycol
(Alternative antifreeze)
CNS mod toxic=1.5 cups induce vomiting
Rodenticides
Anticoagulants
Coumarin type (D-Con, Banarat, Rosex, Ratox, Warfarin)
bleeding, depression, weakness, palor, respiratory Coumarin type
Dangerous-200 mg
Brodificoum type
Dangerous=10 mg
Cholecalciferol
(Rampage, Mouse-B-Gone, Rat-B-Gone, Quintax) 
increased calcium, kidney damage toxic=100 mg
lethal=200 mg
1 packet lethal in 20# dog
Bromethalin (Hot Shot, Sudden Death, Mouse Killer, Assult) CNS, depression, paralysis toxic=100 g=3 oz.
lethal=30 oz.

CPR

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
by Karen Leshkivich, DVM

When using CPR, remember your ABC's
A-Airway
B-Breathing
C-Circulation

Airway--Obtain an airway
Actions:
Remove collars and leashes
open mouth carefully
Tilt head to drain any fluids
Extend head and neck
Gently pull out tongue to open airway
Breathing
Actions:
Close mouth to seal, wrap hands firmly around muzzle, place mouth over nose
Give 2 full breaths initially to expand the chest (1.5 to 2 seconds each)
If dog doesn't spontaneously breath, give 12-20 breaths per minute
Circulation
Actions:
Check for pulse
Lay dog on back with neck extended, straddle the body but don't sit on the dog.
Gently compress the abdomen by placing both hands on the sternum, 2/3 the distance front to rear on the sternum.
Compress the chest 1/4 to 1/3 the distance vertically.
Using firm steady movement, maintain contact with chest
80-100 compressions per minute
(PUPPY-lay pup on it's right side. Place one hand on the spine to stabilize, place heel of your other hand behind the elbow, 1/3 distance from sternum, compress as for big dog)
One person CPR
Do initial 2 breaths, check for breathing and heartbeat
Perform chest compressions to ventilation in 15:1 ration (15 compressions, 1 breath)
Two person CPR
1 breath to every 3 compressions
Simultaneously breath and compress the chest, increases the pressure in chest
Abdominal compression
Directs blood toward the heart
Third person performs abdominal compressions--alternate with chest
Can wrap the abdomen with a towel or bandage.

Note-periodically check for femoral pulse, heartbeat or spontaneous breathing. Stop CPR if heartbeat and breathing return. Periodically check mucous membrane for color. SEEK VETERINARY CARE IMMEDIATELY